An array of N elements can be thought of as a way of associating some item with each of the integers 0, 1, …, N-1. If i is one of these integers, it’s possible to get the item associated with i, and it’s possible to put a new item in the i-th position. These “get” and “put” operations define what it means to be an array.
A map is a kind of generalised array. Like an array, a map is defined by “get” and “put” operations. But in a map, these operations are defined not for integers 0,1, …, N-1, but for arbitrary objects of some specified type T. Associated to these objects of type T are objects of some possibly different type S.
In fact, some programming languages use the term associative array instead of map and use the same notation for associative arrays as for regular arrays. In those languages, for example, you might see the notation A[“fred”] used to indicate the item associated to the string “fred” in the associative array A. Java does not use array notation for maps, but the idea is the same: A map is like an array, but the indices for a map are objects, not integers. In a map, an object that serves as an “index” is called a key. The object that is associated with a key is called a value. Note that a key can have at most one associated value, but the same value can be associated to several different keys. A map can be considered to be a set of associations, where each association is a key/value pair.
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